Writing CDs (Tasks)
This chapter provides step-by-step instructions for writing and copying data and audio CDs with the cdrw command.
Working with Audio and Data CDs
You can use the cdrw command to:
Create data CDs
Create audio CDs
Extract audio data from an audio CD
Erase CD-RW media
The cdrw command is available on the Software Supplement for the Solaris 8 Operating Environment 1/01 CD and is also part of the Solaris 9 release.
For information on recommended CD-R or CD-RW devices, go to http://www.sun.com/io_technologies/pci/removable.html.
For information on copying a Solaris CD, see the Building a Bootable Jumpstart Installation CD-ROM article from http://www.sun.com/blueprints/browsesubject.html.
CD Media Commonly Used Terms
Commonly used terms when referring to CD media are:
CD read media that can be written once and after that, can only be read from.
CD rewritable media that can be written to and erased. CD-RW media can only be read by CD-RW devices.
ISO, an acronym for Industry Standards Organization, is an organization that sets standards computer storage formats.
An ISO 9660 file system is a standard CD-ROM file system that enables you to read the same CD-ROM on any major computer platform. The standard, issued in 1988, was written by an industry group named High Sierra, named after the High Sierra Hotel in Nevada. Almost all computers with CD-ROM drives can read files from an ISO 9660 file system.
Rock Ridge extensions
Adds Windows file system information.
Adds UNIX file system information. (Rock Ridge is named after the town in Blazing Saddles.)
These extensions are not exclusive. You can specify both mkisofs -R and -j options for compatibility with both systems. (See mkisofs(1M) for details).
Acronym for Multi Media Command, which means these recorder comply with a common command set. Programs that can write to one MMC-compliant recorder should be able to write to all others.
Red Book CDDA
Acronym for Compact Disc Digital Audio, which is an industry standard method for storing digital audio on compact discs. It is also known by the term "Red Book" format. The official industry specification calls for one or more audio files sampled in 16-bit stereo sound at a sampling rate of 44.1 kilohertz (kHz).
Commonly used terms when working with the CD media are:
The process of erasing data from the CD-RW media.
Command for making a ISO file system to write onto a CD.
A complete track with lead-in and lead-out information.
A complete data or audio unit.
Writing Data and Audio CDs
The process of writing to a CD cannot be interrupted and needs a constant stream of data. Consider using the cdrw -S option to simulate writing to the media to verify if the system can provide data at a rate good enough for writing to the CD.
Write errors can be caused by one of the following:
The media cannot handle the drive speed. For example, some media are only certified for 2x or 4x speeds.
The system is running too many heavy processes that can starve the writing process.
Network congestion can cause delays in reading the image if the image is on a remote system.
The source drive might be slower than the destination drive when copying from CD-to-CD.
If any of these problems occur, you can lower the writing speed of the device with the cdrw -p option.
For example, simulate writing at 4x speed.
$ cdrw -iS -p 4 image.iso
You can also use the cdrw -C option to use the stated media capacity for copying an 80-minute CD. Otherwise, the cdrw command uses a default value of 74 minutes for copying an audio CD.
For more information, see cdrw(1) .